Disorders and Mental Health

Mental Health and Different Kinds of Disorders

Everything on this page is from Wikipedia. If we search on Wikipedia, we can find what we are looking for, but here you can find everything on just one page. It`s meant to be a summary-page, and will be updated along the way.

Bipolar Disorder – Signs and symptoms

Disorders and Mental HealthIn bipolar disorder, people experience abnormally elevated (manic or hypomanic) mood states which interfere with the functions of ordinary life. Many people with bipolar disorder also experience periods of depressed mood, but this is not universal. There is no simple physiological test to confirm the disorder. Diagnosing bipolar disorder is often difficult, even for mental health professionals. In particular, it can be difficult to distinguish depression caused by bipolar disorder from pure unipolar depression.
The younger the age of onset, the more likely the first few episodes are to be depressive. Because a bipolar diagnosis requires a manic or hypomanic episode, many patients are initially diagnosed and treated as having major depression.

Manic episodes

Mania is the defining feature of bipolar disorder. Mania is a distinct period of elevated or irritable mood, which can take the form of euphoria, and lasts for at least a week (less if hospitalization is required).

Depressive episodes

  • M— severe mania
  • D— severe depression (unipolar depression)
  • m— less severe mania (hypomania)
  • d— less severe depression

Criteria and subtypes – Bipolar I disorder – Bipolar II disorder

Differential diagnosis

There are several other mental disorders which may involve similar symptoms to bipolar disorder. These include schizophrenia, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and some personality disorders, including borderline personality disorder.

It has been noted that the bipolar disorder diagnosis is officially characterized in historical terms such that, technically, anyone with a history of (hypo)mania and depression has bipolar disorder whatever their current or future functioning and vulnerability. This has been described as “an ethical and methodological issue”, as it means no one can be considered as being recovered (only “in remission”) from bipolar disorder according to the official criteria.

This is considered especially problematic given that brief hypomanic episodes are widespread among people generally and not necessarily associated with dysfunction.

Anxiety disorder

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anxiety disorder is an umbrella term that covers several different forms of a type of common mental disorder, characterized by excessive rumination, worrying, uneasiness, apprehension and fear about future uncertainties either based on real or imagined events, which may affect both physical and psychological health. There are numerous psychiatric and medical syndromes which may mimic the symptoms of an anxiety disorder such as hyperthyroidism which may be misdiagnosed as generalized anxiety disorder.

Individuals diagnosed with an anxiety disorder may be classified in one of two categories; based on whether they experience continuous or episodic symptoms.

Current psychiatric diagnostic criteria recognize a wide variety of anxiety disorders. Recent surveys have shown that as many as 18% of Americans and 14% of Europeans may be affected by one or more of them.

Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common, chronic disorder characterized by long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any one object or situation. Those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder experience non-specific persistent fear and worry, and become overly concerned with everyday matters.

According to Schacter, Gilbert, and Wegner’s book Psychology: Second Edition, generalized anxiety disorder is “characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance”. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder to affect older adults. Anxiety can be a symptom of a medical or substance abuse problem, and medical professionals must be aware of this. A diagnosis of GAD is made when a person has been excessively worried about an everyday problem for six months or more.

A person may find they have problems making daily decisions and remembering commitments as a result of lack of concentration/preoccupation with worry. Appearance looks strained, with increased sweating from the hands, feet, and axillae. May be tearful which can suggest depression. Before a diagnosis of anxiety disorder is made, physicians must rule out drug-induced anxiety and other medical causes.

Panic disorder – Social anxiety disorder – Post-traumatic stress disorder – Situational Anxiety – Childhood anxiety disorders – Major depressive disorder

Borderline personality disorder

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) (Not to be confused with multiple personality disorder) (called emotionally unstable personality disorder, emotional intensity disorder, borderline type in the ICD-10) is a cluster-B personality disorder whose essential features are a pattern of marked impulsivity and instability of affects, interpersonal relationships, and self image. The pattern is present by early adulthood and occurs across a variety of situations and contexts.
Other symptoms usually include intense fears of abandonment and intense anger and irritability, the reason for which others have difficulty understanding.

People with BPD often engage in idealization and devaluation of others, alternating between high positive regard and great disappointment. Self-harm and suicidal behavior are common.
This disorder is recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Because a personality disorder is a pervasive, enduring and inflexible pattern of maladaptive inner experience and pathological behavior, there is a general reluctance to diagnose personality disorders before adolescence or early adulthood. Some emphasize, however, that without early treatment, symptoms may worsen.

There is an ongoing debate about the terminology of this disorder, especially the word “borderline”. The ICD-10 manual refers to this disorder as Emotionally unstable personality disorder and has similar diagnostic criteria. There is related concern that the diagnosis of BPD stigmatizes people with BPD and supports discriminatory practices, because it suggests that the personality of the individual is flawed. In the DSM-5, the name of the disorder remains the same.

Depression (mood)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being.
Depressed people can feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, have problems concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions, and may contemplate, attempt, or commit suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, or aches, pains, or digestive problems may also be present.

Depressed mood is not always a psychiatric disorder. It may also be a normal reaction to certain life events, a symptom of some medical conditions, or a side effect of some drugs or medical treatments. Depressed mood is also a primary or associated feature of certain psychiatric syndromes such as clinical depression.

Causes – Life events

Life events and changes that may precipitate depressed mood include childbirth, menopause, financial difficulties, job problems, a medical diagnosis (cancer, HIV, etc.), bullying, loss of a loved one, natural disasters, social isolation, relationship troubles, jealousy, separation, and catastrophic injury.

Traumatizing events that took place in childhood can cause depression. Although childhood trauma and particularly child sex abuse is not always a factor of adulthood depression, it may create psychological pathways that can lead to depression. Research has been done in this field to demonstrate the chemical involvements explaining this phenomenon. Unequal parental treatment is also a risk factor.

Medical treatments

Certain medications are known to cause depressed mood in a significant number of patients. These include hepatitis C drug therapy and some drugs used to treat high blood pressure, such as beta-blockers or reserpine.


Depressed mood may not require any professional treatment, and may be a normal reaction to certain life events, a symptom of some medical conditions, or a side effect of some drugs or medical treatments. A prolonged depressed mood, especially in combination with other symptoms, may lead to a diagnosis of a psychiatric or medical condition, which may benefit from treatment. Different sub-divisions of depression have different treatment approaches.

Given an accurate diagnosis of major depressive disorder, in general the type of treatment (psychotherapy and/or antidepressants, alternative therapies, or active intervention) is “less important than getting depressed patients involved in an active therapeutic program.”


Women are more prone to depression and this could be explained by gender roles and norms attached to those roles. Women are expected to care for family and friends, but without strong, stable supportive relationships they are more susceptible to depressive symptoms.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention, hyperactivity, or acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person’s age.
These symptoms must begin by age six to twelve and be present for more than six months for a diagnosis to be made. In school-aged individuals inattention symptoms often result in poor school performance.

Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, the cause in the majority of cases
is unknown. It affects about 6–7% of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1–2% when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria. Rates are similar between countries and depend mostly on how it is diagnosed. ADHD is diagnosed approximately three times more in boys than in girls. About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition. The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other disorders as well as that of high normal activity.

ADHD management usually involves some combination of counseling, lifestyle changes, and medications. Medications are only recommended as a first-line treatment in children who have severe symptoms and may be considered for those with moderate symptoms who either refuse or fail to improve with counseling.
Long term effects of medications are not clear and they are not recommended in preschool-aged children. Adolescents and adults tend to develop coping skills which make up for some or all of their impairments.

ADHD and its diagnosis and treatment have been considered controversial since the 1970s.
The controversies have involved clinicians, teachers, policymakers, parents and the media. Topics include ADHD‘s causes, and the use of stimulant medications in its treatment.
Most healthcare providers accept ADHD as a genuine disorder with debate in the scientific community mainly around how it is diagnosed and treated (Redirected from ADHD)

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